Genes That Affect Fat Metabolism and Cholesterol Regulation

    Maintaining a healthy weight is vital for your health. Obesity is more than unhealthy – it is life threatening. Obesity increases your risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, certain cancers and joints problems. It also leads to increased inflammation and oxidative stress.

    Your lifestyle choices around diet and exercise play a major role in weight maintenance. However, your genes also have a major role in weight maintenance. Weight maintenance and weight loss is not simply about calories in and calorie expenditure. Some people are genetically more prone to having a weight problem. Your genes influence how much total fat, saturated fat and carbohydrates you can tolerate. Your genes influence how much fat you absorb from food, how much body fat you can make, how effectively you can burn body fat, the best type of exercise for you to burn body fat, and how prone you are to rebound weight gain.

    You have genes that influence appetite control and satiety. Some people are genetically prone to overeating, more inclined to want high fat, high carbohydrate food, and feeling like they have not had enough to eat, not feeling satisfied or full.

    Understanding these genetic influences enables you to make the best choices around diet and exercise for successful weight loss and long term weight maintenance.

     

    Fat Metabolism

     

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    FAB2

    Is a fatty-acid binding protein that strongly influences fat absorption. The orange dot and particularly the red dot indicate increased activity and increased fat absorption. This can result in increased risk of obesity, difficulty loosing weight, increased leptin and decreased glucose tolerance.

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    PPARγ

    Regulates fat metabolism, energy storage, insulin sensitivity and glucose control. The orange dot and particularly the red dot indicate decreased binding of this protein to target genes. This can lead to weight gain, difficulty losing weight, prone to rebound weight gain and poor tolerance to dietary fats.

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    PPARgC1A

    Critical role in the maintenance of glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis. Co-activator of antioxidant genes and is a master regulator of mitochondrial function and mitochondrial gene expression. The orange dot and particularly the red dot indicate decreased activity of this protein. This can lead to increased risk of obesity, diabetes, neurodegeneration and cardiomyopathy.

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    MC4R

    Melanocortin is a protein that plays a very important role in body-weight regulation, especially in women. The orange dot and particularly the red dot indicate decreased receptor activity to this protein. This can lead to increased risk of obesity and childhood obesity.

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    FTO

    This gene is strongly associated with obesity and weight problems in childhood. Orange dot and particularly red dot associated with increased risk of being overweight and obese, less control over eating, decreased satiety and selection of higher fat foods.

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    LEPR-1

    Regulates appetite and metabolism. Also regulates production of inflammatory cytokines. Orange dot and particularly red dot associated with increased risk of being overweight and obese.

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    LEPR-2

     

    Energy Metabolism and Thermogenesis

     

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    ADRβ2

    This receptor is involved in mobilizing fat for energy production in response to stress. Orange dot and particularly red dot indicate decreased receptor function and decreased ability to burn body fat. Associated with increased risk of obesity, weight gain, difficulty losing weight, rebound weight gain and decreased tolerance to carbohydrates.

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    ADRβ3

    This receptor is located in visceral (belly) fat where it controls the breakdown of fat. Orange dot and particularly red dot indicate decreased receptor function and decreased ability to burn visceral fat. Associated with increased risk of obesity, weight gain and difficulty losing weight.

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    UCP1

    This uncoupling protein is used to convert fat into heat. Orange dot and particularly red dot indicate decreased activity and decreased ability to burn body fat for heat. Resistance (weights) exercise is the best exercise for fat burning in people who have orange or red dots.

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    UCP3

     

    Cholesterol Regulation

     

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    CETP

    This enzyme breaks down HDL. Orange dot and particularly red dot indicate increased enzyme activity and increased risk of having low HDL (good cholesterol).

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    LIPC

    This enzyme breaks down lipids. Orange dot and particularly red dot indicate increased enzyme activity and increased risk of having low HDL (good cholesterol).

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    PON1

    Is an antioxidant protein that protects LDL from oxidation. Oxidized LDL is a major cardiovascular risk factor. Orange dot and particularly red dot indicate decreased enzyme activity and increased risk of having oxidized LDL.